Background: Graves’ disease (GD) is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism. In children, the overall relapse frequency after treatment with antithyroid drugs is high. Therefore, many pediatric GD patients eventually require thyroidectomy as definitive treatment. However, the postoperative complications of thyroidectomy in pediatric GD patients are poorly reported. Objective: To identify the frequency of short- and long-term postoperative morbidities after thyroidectomy in pediatric GD patients. Methods: A systematic review of the literature (PubMed and Embase) was performed to identify studies reporting short- and long-term postoperative morbidities after thyroidectomy in pediatric GD patients according to the PRISMA guidelines. Results: Twenty-two mainly retrospective cohort studies were included in this review evaluating short- and long-term morbidities in 1,424 children and adolescents. The frequency of transient hypocalcemia was 22.2% (269/1,210), with a range of 5.0–50.0%. The frequency of permanent hypocalcemia was 2.5% (36/1,424), with a range of 0–20.0%. Two studies reported high frequencies of permanent hypocalcemia, 20.0 (6/30) and 17.4% (9/52), respectively. The 20% frequency could be explained by low-volume surgeons in poorly controlled GD patients. Only 21 cases of permanent hypocalcemia were reported in the 1,342 patients included in the other 20 studies (1.6%). Transient and permanent recurrent laryngeal nerve injury were reported less frequently, with frequencies between 0–20.0 and 0–7.1%, respectively. Infection, hemorrhage/hematoma, and keloid development were only rarely reported as postoperative complications. Conclusion: The results of this systematic review suggest that thyroidectomy is a safe treatment option for pediatric GD patients. The minority of patients will experience transient and benign morbidities, with hypocalcemia being the most common transient postoperative morbidity. Permanent postoperative morbidities are relatively rare.
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- Author: A S Paul van Trotsenburg x
Annabel S. Zaat, Joep P.M. Derikx, Nitash Zwaveling-Soonawala, A.S. Paul van Trotsenburg, and Christiaan F. Mooij
Sarah L. Lutterman, Nitash Zwaveling-Soonawala, Hein J. Verberne, Frederik A. Verburg, A.S. Paul van Trotsenburg, and Christiaan F. Mooij
Background: Graves’s disease (GD) is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism. Maximal 30% of pediatric GD patients achieve remission with antithyroid drugs. The majority of patients therefore require definitive treatment. Both thyroidectomy and radioactive iodine (RAI) are often used as definitive treatment for GD. However, data on efficacy and short- and long-term side effects of RAI treatment for pediatric GD are relatively scarce. Methods: A systematic review of the literature (PubMed and Embase) was performed to identify studies reporting the efficacy or short- and long-term side effects of RAI treatment in pediatric GD. Results: Twenty-three studies evaluating 1,283 children and adolescents treated with RAI for GD were included. The treatment goal of RAI treatment changed over time, from trying to achieve euthyroidism in the past to aiming at complete thyroid destruction and subsequent hypothyroidism in the last 3 decades. The reported efficacy of a first RAI treatment when aiming at hypothyroidism ranged from 42.8 to 97.5%, depending on the activity administered. The efficacy seems to increase with higher RAI activities. When aiming at hypothyroidism, both short- and long-term side effects of treatment are very rare. Long-term side effects were mainly seen in patients in whom treatment aimed at achieving euthyroidism. Conclusion: RAI is a safe definitive treatment option for pediatric GD when aiming at complete thyroid destruction. When aiming at hypothyroidism, the efficacy of treatment seems to increase with a higher RAI activity. Prospective studies are needed to determine the optimal RAI dosing regimen in pediatric GD.
Christiaan F. Mooij, Nitash Zwaveling-Soonawala, Eric Fliers, and A.S. Paul van Trotsenburg
Kevin Stroek, Annemieke C. Heijboer, Marja van Veen-Sijne, Annet M. Bosch, Catharina P.B. van der Ploeg, Nitash Zwaveling-Soonawala, Robert de Jonge, A.S. Paul van Trotsenburg, and Anita Boelen
Introduction: Newborn screening (NBS) for congenital hypothyroidism (CH) in the Netherlands consists of thyroxine (T4), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and T4-binding globulin (TBG) measurements to detect thyroidal CH and central CH (CH-C). CH-C is detected by T4 or a calculated T4/TBG ratio, which serves as an indirect measure of free T4. TSH and TBG are only measured in the lowest 20 and 5% of daily T4 values, respectively. A recent evaluation of the Dutch NBS for CH showed that the T4 and T4/TBG ratio contribute to the detection of CH-C but also lead to a low positive predictive value (PPV). Dried blood spot (DBS) reference intervals (RIs) are currently unknown and may contribute to improvement of our NBS algorithm. Materials and Methods: RIs of T4, TSH, TBG, and the T4/TBG ratio were determined according to Clinical & Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines in heel puncture cards from routine NBS in both sexes and at the common NBS sampling ages. Scatter plots were used to compare the healthy reference population to previously published data of CH-C patients and false positives. Results: Analyses of 1,670 heel puncture cards showed small differences between subgroups and led to the formulation of total sample DBS RIs for T4 (56–118 nmol/L), TSH (<2.6 mIU/L), TBG (116–271 nmol/L), and the T4/TBG ratio (>20). 46% of false-positive referrals based on T4 alone had a TBG below the RI, indicating preventable referral due to partial TBG deficiency. One case of CH-C also had partial TBG deficiency (TBG 59 and T4 12 nmol/L blood). Discussion/Conclusion: Established DBS RIs provided possibilities to improve the PPV of the Dutch CH NBS algorithm. We conclude that by taking partial TBG deficiency into account, approximately half of T4 false-positive referrals may be prevented while maintaining NBS sensitivity at the current level.
Christiaan F Mooij, Timothy D Cheetham, Frederik A Verburg, Anja Eckstein, Simon H Pearce, Juliane Léger, and A S Paul van Trotsenburg
Hyperthyroidism caused by Graves’ disease (GD) is a relatively rare disease in children. Treatment options are the same as in adults – antithyroid drugs (ATD), radioactive iodine (RAI) or thyroid surgery, but the risks and benefits of each modality are different. The European Thyroid Association guideline provides new recommendations for the management of pediatric GD with and without orbitopathy. Clinicians should be alert that GD may present with behavioral changes or declining academic performance in children. Measurement of serum TSH receptor antibodies is recommended for all pediatric patients with hyperthyroidism. Management recommendations include the first-line use of a prolonged course of methimazole/carbimazole ATD treatment (3 years or more), a preference for dose titration instead of block and replace ATD, and to avoid propylthiouracil use. Where definitive treatment is required either total thyroidectomy or RAI is recommended, aiming for complete thyroid ablation with a personalized RAI activity. We recommend avoiding RAI in children under 10 years of age but favor surgery in patients with large goiter. Pediatric endocrinologists should be involved in all cases.
Luca Persani, Georg Brabant, Mehul Dattani, Marco Bonomi, Ulla Feldt-Rasmussen, Eric Fliers, Annette Gruters, Dominique Maiter, Nadia Schoenmakers, and A.S. Paul van Trotsenburg
Objectives: Central hypothyroidism (CeH) is a rare form of hypothyroidism characterized by insufficient thyroid stimulation due to disturbed pituitary and/or hypothalamic functioning. Due to its origin and the whole clinical context, CeH represents a challenging condition in clinical practice as it is characterized by suboptimal accuracy of clinical and biochemical parameters for diagnosis and management. Since no expert consensus or guidance for this condition is currently available, a task force of experts received the commitment from the European Thyroid Association (ETA) to prepare this document based on the principles of clinical evidence. Study Design: The task force started to work in February 2017 and after a careful selection of appropriate references (cohort studies, case reports, expert opinions), a preliminary presentation and live discussion during the 2017 ETA meeting, and several revision rounds, has prepared a list of recommendations to support the diagnosis and management of patients with CeH. Results: Due to the particular challenges of this rare condition in the different ages, the target users of this guidance are pediatric and adult endocrinologists. Experts agreed on the need to recognize and treat overt CeH at all ages, whereas treatment of milder forms may be dispensable in the elderly (> 75 years). Conclusions: Despite the lack of randomized controlled clinical trials, the experts provide 34 recommendations supported by variable levels of strength that should improve the quality of life of the affected patients and reduce the metabolic and hormonal consequences of inadequate management.
Chantal A Lebbink, Thera P Links, Agnieszka Czarniecka, Renuka P Dias, Rossella Elisei, Louise Izatt, Heiko Krude, Kerstin Lorenz, Markus Luster, Kate Newbold, Arnoldo Piccardo, Manuel Sobrinho-Simões, Toru Takano, A S Paul van Trotsenburg, Frederik A Verburg, and Hanneke M van Santen
At present, no European recommendations for the management of pediatric thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) exist. Differences in clinical, molecular, and pathological characteristics between pediatric and adult DTC emphasize the need for specific recommendations for the pediatric population. An expert panel was instituted by the executive committee of the European Thyroid Association including an international community of experts from a variety of disciplines including pediatric and adult endocrinology, pathology, endocrine surgery, nuclear medicine, clinical genetics, and oncology. The 2015 American Thyroid Association Pediatric Guideline was used as framework for the present guideline. Areas of discordance were identified, and clinical questions were formulated. The expert panel members discussed the evidence and formulated recommendations based on the latest evidence and expert opinion. Children with a thyroid nodule or DTC require expert care in an experienced center. The present guideline provides guidance for healthcare professionals to make well-considered decisions together with patients and parents regarding diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of pediatric thyroid nodules and DTC.