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Stine Linding Andersen Departments of Endocrinology, Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark
Department of Clinical Medicine, Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark

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Louise Kolding Sørensen Departments of Endocrinology, Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark

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Anne Krejbjerg Departments of Endocrinology, Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark
Department of Clinical Medicine, Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark

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Margrethe Møller Obstetrics and Gynecology, Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark

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Peter Laurberg Departments of Endocrinology, Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark
Department of Clinical Medicine, Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark

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Objectives: Median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) is the recommended method to evaluate iodine status in pregnancy, but several factors may challenge the interpretation of the results. We evaluated UIC in pregnant women according to (1) sampling in the hospital versus at home, (2) time of the most recent iodine supplement intake prior to sampling, and (3) members of their household. Study Design: Danish cross-sectional study in the year 2012. Pregnant women (n = 158), their male partners (n = 157) and children (n = 51) provided a questionnaire with detailed information on iodine supplement intake and a spot urine sample obtained in the hospital and/or at home for measurement of UIC and urinary creatinine concentration. Results: In the pregnant women providing a urine sample both in the hospital and at home (n = 66), individual UIC (p = 0.002) and urinary creatinine concentration (p = 0.042), but not estimated 24-hour urinary iodine excretion (p = 0.79), were higher when sampling was at home. Median UIC was dependent on the time of the most recent iodine supplement intake prior to sampling [same day (n = 79): 150 µg/l (95% CI 131-181 µg/l), the day before (n = 51): 105 µg/l (78-131 µg/l), several days ago/non-user (n = 28): 70 µg/l (56-94 µg/l), p < 0.001]. The pattern was similar in the male partners. Apart from a more frequent iodine supplement intake in pregnancy (87.3% vs. partners 15.9%), no systematic differences were observed in urinary measurements between the pregnant women and their partners. Conclusions: Time of spot urine sampling and time span from iodine supplement intake to spot urine sampling should be considered when evaluating urinary iodine status in pregnancy.

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Line Tang Møllehave Center for Clinical Research and Prevention, Copenhagen University Hospital - Bispebjerg and Frederiksberg, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Nils Knudsen Department of Endocrinology, Bispebjerg University Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Denmark

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Allan Linneberg Center for Clinical Research and Prevention, Copenhagen University Hospital - Bispebjerg and Frederiksberg, Copenhagen, Denmark
Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Inge Bülow Pedersen Department of Endocrinology and Medicine, Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark

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Gitte Ravn-Haren Research Group for Risk Benefit, National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark

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Anja Lykke Madsen Center for Clinical Research and Prevention, Copenhagen University Hospital - Bispebjerg and Frederiksberg, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Allan Carlé Department of Endocrinology and Medicine, Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark

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Charlotte Cerqueira The Danish Clinical Quality Program – National Clinical Registries (RKKP), Denmark

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Anne Krejbjerg Department of Oncology, Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark

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Lone Banke Rasmussen Independent researcher, Klemensker, Denmark

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Lars Ovesen Center for Clinical Research and Prevention, Copenhagen University Hospital - Bispebjerg and Frederiksberg, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Hans Perrild Department of Endocrinology, Bispebjerg University Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Denmark

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Lena Bjergved Sigurd Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
Department of Internal Medicine, Copenhagen University Hospital – Herlev and Gentofte, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Betina Heinsbæk Thuesen Center for Clinical Research and Prevention, Copenhagen University Hospital - Bispebjerg and Frederiksberg, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Pernille Vejbjerg Center for Clinical Research and Prevention, Copenhagen University Hospital - Bispebjerg and Frederiksberg, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Torben Jørgensen Center for Clinical Research and Prevention, Copenhagen University Hospital - Bispebjerg and Frederiksberg, Copenhagen, Denmark
Department of Public Health, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Due to mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency in Denmark, health authorities initiated a voluntary iodine fortification (IF) program in 1998, which became mandatory in 2000. In line with recommendations from the World Health Organization, the Danish investigation on iodine intake and thyroid disease (DanThyr) was established to monitor the effect on thyroid health and disease. The program involved different study designs and followed two Danish sub-populations in the years before IF and up till 20 years after. Results showed that the IF was successfully implemented and increased the level of iodine intake from mild–moderate iodine deficiency to low adequacy. The level of thyroglobulin and thyroid volume decreased following IF, and there was an indication of fewer thyroid nodules. The incidence of hyperthyroidism increased transiently following IF but subsequently decreased below the pre-fortification level. Conversely, thyroid-stimulating hormone levels and the prevalence of thyroid autoimmunity increased along with an increase in the incidence of hypothyroidism. These trends were mirrored in the trends in treatments for thyroid disease. Most differences in thyroid health and disease between regions with different iodine intake levels before IF attenuated. This review illustrates the importance of a monitoring program to detect both beneficial and adverse effects and exemplifies how a monitoring program can be conducted when a nationwide health promotion program – as IF – is initiated.

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