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  • Author: Annemieke C Heijboer x
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Open access

Heleen I Jansen, Antonius E van Herwaarden, Henk J Huijgen, Rebecca C Painter, Jacquelien J Hillebrand, Anita Boelen, and Annemieke C Heijboer


Thyroid hormone measurements are often performed in pregnant women, as hypo- and hyperthyroidism during pregnancy can severely affect the fetus. Serum free thyroxine (fT4) measurements are well known for their analytical challenges, due to low serum concentrations and the subtle equilibrium between free and bound T4 (to thyroid-binding globulin (TBG), transthyretin and albumin). Pregnant women have high TBG concentrations due to an increase in human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and estrogen and lower albumin concentrations which change the equilibrium and may affect the validity of fT4 measurements in their samples. As accurate serum fT4 measurements in pregnant women are important for the long-term health of the fetus, we aimed to evaluate the accuracy of several fT4 immunoassays in the serum of pregnant women.


FT4 was measured in healthy controls and pregnant women using a candidate-reference method (LC-MS/MS) and five commercially available automated immunoassays (Alinity (Abbott), Atellica (Siemens), Cobas (Roche), Lumipulse (Fujirebio) and UniCel DXI (Beckman Coulter)). Method comparisons (Bland Altman plots and Passing and Bablok analyses) were performed.


Serum samples from both healthy controls (n  = 30) and pregnant women (n  = 30; mean gestational age, 24.8 weeks) were collected. The fT4 immunoassays deviated +7 to +29% more from the LC-MS/MS in serum samples of pregnant women than healthy controls (falsely high).


Our results indicate that immunoassays overestimate fT4 in pregnant women, which might lead to an overestimation of thyroid status. Physicians and laboratory specialists should be aware of this phenomenon to avoid drawing false conclusions about thyroid function in pregnant women.

Open access

Kevin Stroek, Annemieke C. Heijboer, Marja van Veen-Sijne, Annet M. Bosch, Catharina P.B. van der Ploeg, Nitash Zwaveling-Soonawala, Robert de Jonge, A.S. Paul van Trotsenburg, and Anita Boelen

Introduction: Newborn screening (NBS) for congenital hypothyroidism (CH) in the Netherlands consists of thyroxine (T4), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and T4-binding globulin (TBG) measurements to detect thyroidal CH and central CH (CH-C). CH-C is detected by T4 or a calculated T4/TBG ratio, which serves as an indirect measure of free T4. TSH and TBG are only measured in the lowest 20 and 5% of daily T4 values, respectively. A recent evaluation of the Dutch NBS for CH showed that the T4 and T4/TBG ratio contribute to the detection of CH-C but also lead to a low positive predictive value (PPV). Dried blood spot (DBS) reference intervals (RIs) are currently unknown and may contribute to improvement of our NBS algorithm. Materials and Methods: RIs of T4, TSH, TBG, and the T4/TBG ratio were determined according to Clinical & Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines in heel puncture cards from routine NBS in both sexes and at the common NBS sampling ages. Scatter plots were used to compare the healthy reference population to previously published data of CH-C patients and false positives. Results: Analyses of 1,670 heel puncture cards showed small differences between subgroups and led to the formulation of total sample DBS RIs for T4 (56–118 nmol/L), TSH (<2.6 mIU/L), TBG (116–271 nmol/L), and the T4/TBG ratio (>20). 46% of false-positive referrals based on T4 alone had a TBG below the RI, indicating preventable referral due to partial TBG deficiency. One case of CH-C also had partial TBG deficiency (TBG 59 and T4 12 nmol/L blood). Discussion/Conclusion: Established DBS RIs provided possibilities to improve the PPV of the Dutch CH NBS algorithm. We conclude that by taking partial TBG deficiency into account, approximately half of T4 false-positive referrals may be prevented while maintaining NBS sensitivity at the current level.