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Sepehr Torabinejad, Caterina Miro, Biagio Barone, Ciro Imbimbo, Felice Crocetto, and Monica Dentice

There is increasing evidence that thyroid hormones (THs) work in an integrative fashion with androgen receptors (ARs) to regulate gonadal differentiation and reproductive function. Studies reveal that THs have interactions with the AR promoter region and increase AR expression. THs also have a role in the regulation of enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of androgens, such as 5α-reductase, which is essential in the conversion of testosterone into its active form, 5α-dihydrotestosterone. Additionally, the presence of androgen response elements in the promoter regions of TH-related genes, such as deiodinases and TH receptor isoforms, has been identified in some vertebrates, indicating a mutual interaction between THs and ARs. Since the androgen signaling pathway, mediated by ARs, plays a key role in the formation and progression of prostate cancer (PCa), the existence of crosstalk between THs and ARs supports the epidemiologic and experimental evidence indicating a relationship between the high incidence of PCa and hyperthyroidism. This article aims to review the role of androgen-TH crosstalk in PCa and its implication in clinical management. As life expectancy is growing these days, it can increase the number of patients with PCa and the critical relevance of the disease. In order to gain better knowledge about PCa and to improve clinical management, it is essential to get better insight into the key factors related to the formation and progression of this cancer.