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Chantal Daumerie and Jacques Orgiazzi

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Shakeel Kautbally, Orsalia Alexopoulou, Chantal Daumerie, François Jamar, Michel Mourad, and Dominique Maiter

Aims: We compared the effects of total thyroidectomy (TTx) and radioiodine (RAI) administration on the course of thyroid hormones and thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulins (TSI) in patients with Graves’ disease. Methods: We retrospectively studied 80 patients initially treated with antithyroid drugs and requiring either RAI (8.3 ± 1.7 mCi of <sup>131</sup>I; n = 40) or TTx (n = 40) as second-line therapy. Results: The TTx and RAI groups were not different, except for larger goiter, higher FT<sub>3</sub> and more frequent Graves’ orbitopathy at diagnosis in the surgery group (p < 0.05). A persistent remission of hyperthyroidism was observed in 97% of operated patients versus 73% of the RAI patients at 3 years (p < 0.01). TTx was followed by a rapid and steady decrease in TSI during the first 9 months, while a surge of antibodies was observed during the first 6 months after RAI, followed by a slow decrease over the next 18 months. At the last visit, high TSI levels were still observed in 18 and 60% of patients in the surgery and RAI groups, respectively (p < 0.001). Conclusions: TTx is more efficient than RAI to induce a rapid and permanent correction of hyperthyroidism and TSI decrease in patients previously treated with antithyroid drugs.

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John Lazarus, Rosalind S. Brown, Chantal Daumerie, Alicja Hubalewska-Dydejczyk, Roberto Negro, and Bijay Vaidya

This guideline has been produced as the official statement of the European Thyroid Association guideline committee. Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) in pregnancy is defined as a thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level above the pregnancy-related reference range with a normal serum thyroxine concentration. Isolated hypothyroxinaemia (defined as a thyroxine level below the 2.5th centile of the pregnancy-related reference range with a normal TSH level) is also recognized in pregnancy. In the majority of SCH the cause is autoimmune thyroiditis but may also be due to iodine deficiency. The cause of isolated hypothyroxinaemia is usually not apparent, but iodine deficiency may be a factor. SCH and isolated hypothyroxinaemia are both associated with adverse obstetric outcomes. Levothyroxine therapy may ameliorate some of these with SCH but not in isolated hypothyroxinaemia. SCH and isolated hypothyroxinaemia are both associated with neuro-intellectual impairment of the child, but there is no evidence that maternal levothyroxine therapy improves this outcome. Targeted antenatal screening for thyroid function will miss a substantial percentage of women with thyroid dysfunction. In children SCH (serum TSH concentration >5.5-10 mU/l) normalizes in >70% and persists in the majority of the remaining patients over the subsequent 5 years, but rarely worsens. There is a lack of studies examining the impact of SCH on the neuropsychological development of children under the age of 3 years. In older children, the evidence for an association between SCH and impaired neuropsychological development is inconsistent. Good quality studies examining the effect of treatment of SCH in children are lacking.