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Open access

Jihwan Yoo, Hee Jun Kim, Seok Mo Kim, and Hun Ho Park


Brain metastasis in differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) is rare (frequency < 1%) and has a poor prognosis. Treatment strategies for brain metastasis are not well established.


We conducted a retrospective analysis to identify predictive factors for patient outcomes and verify surgical indications for patients with brain metastasis and DTC.


The study included 34 patients with pathologically confirmed DTC with brain metastasis from March 2008 to November 2020. The associations between overall survival (OS) and clinical factors were evaluated. Cox regression analysis was used to determine the relationship between clinical factors and OS. To assess the survival benefit of craniotomy, Kaplan–Meier survival analysis was performed for each variable whose statistical significance was determined by Cox regression analysis.


The median OS of the entire patient sample was 11.4 months. Survival was affected by the presence of lung metastasis (P = 0.033) and the number of brain metastases (n  > 3) (P = 0.039). Only the subgroup with the number of brain metastases ≤3 showed statistical significance in the subgroup analysis of survival benefit following craniotomy (P = 0.048).


The number of brain metastases and the existence of lung metastasis were regarded more essential than other clinical factors in patients with DTC in this study. Furthermore, craniotomies indicated a survival benefit only when the number of brain metastases was ≤3. This finding could be beneficial in determining surgical indications in thyroid cancer with brain metastasis.

Free access

Dong Jun Lim, Won Bae Kim, Bo Hyun Kim, Tae Yong Kim, Young Suk Jo, Ho-Cheol Kang, Young Joo Park, Ka Hee Yi, Minho Shong, In Joo Kim, Do Joon Park, Sun Wook Kim, Jae Hoon Chung, Jaetae Lee, Sung-Soo Koong, and Young Kee Shong

Background: Acute short-term hypothyroidism induced by thyroid hormone withdrawal (THW) for follow-up surveillance or therapeutic radioiodine causes patients with differentiated thyroid cancer to suffer from a myriad of deleterious symptoms. Objectives: To know how patient recognition of hypothyroid symptoms compares to physician perception of patient symptoms. Methods: The survey was performed in 10 referral hospitals throughout Korea from December 2010 to May 2011 and targeted patients with total thyroidectomy and remnant ablation. The survey consisted of questions regarding the effect of THW on patient symptoms, the duration of symptoms, impact on social life, and patient complaints. The physicians treating thyroid cancer patients also responded to the survey and provided their perceptions of patient symptoms and treatment decisions. Results: About 70% of the patients responded that they experienced a negative physical or psychological impact on their life and work due to hypothyroid symptoms. However, 76% of doctors thought hypothyroidism could negatively impact a patient's daily life but would be endurable. Two thirds of physicians do not routinely recommend recombinant human TSH (rhTSH) to their patients. Multivariate analysis showed patients with female sex, stronger educational background, emotionally negative experiences of hypothyroidism, and younger age were more willing to pay for therapy that could prevent hypothyroidism symptoms. Conclusions: There was a substantial gap in the perception of hypothyroid symptoms during THW between physicians and patients. Physicians who are aware of the seriousness of hypothyroidism in their patients were more likely to recommend the use of rhTSH for their patients.