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  • Author: Krishna Chatterjee x
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Luca Persani L Persani, Medical Biotechnologies and Translational Medicine, University of Milan, Milano, 20149, Italy

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Patrice Rodien P Rodien, EDN, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire d'Angers, Angers, 49933, France

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Carla Moran C Moran, Diabetes & Endocrinology Section, Beacon Hospital, Sandyford, Ireland

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W. Edward Visser W Visser, Department of Internal Medicine and Rotterdam Thyroid Center, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, Netherlands

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Stefan Groeneweg S Groeneweg, Department of Internal Medicine and Rotterdam Thyroid Center, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, Netherlands

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Robin P. Peeters R Peeters, Department of Internal Medicine and Rotterdam Thyroid Center, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, Netherlands

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Samuel Refetoff S Refetoff, Departments of Medicine and Pediatrics, The University of Chicago, Chicago, 60637-1476, United States

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Mark Gurnell M Gurnell, Institute of Metabolic Science, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

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Paolo Beck-Peccoz P Beck-Peccoz, Department of Medical Biotechnology and Translational Medicine, University of Milan, Milano, Italy

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Krishna Chatterjee K Chatterjee, Institute of Metabolic Science, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB2 0QQ, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

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Impaired sensitivity to thyroid hormones encompasses disorders with defective transport of hormones into cells, reduced hormone metabolism and resistance to hormone action. Mediated by heritable single gene defects, these rare conditions exhibit different patterns of discordant thyroid function associated with multisystem phenotypes. In this context, challenges include ruling out other causes of biochemical discordance, making a diagnosis using clinical features together with identification of pathogenic variants in causal genes and managing these rare disorders with a limited evidence base. For each condition, the present guidelines aim to inform clinical practice by summarising key clinical features and useful investigations, criteria for molecular genetic diagnosis and pathways for management and therapy. Specific, key recommendations were developed by combining the best research evidence available with the knowledge and clinical experience of panel members, to achieve a consensus.

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Irene Campi Division of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases and Laboratory of Endocrine and Metabolic Research, Istituto Auxologico Italiano, Istituto Di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico (IRCCS), Milan, Italy

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Maura Agostini Wellcome Trust-MRC Institute of Metabolic Science, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom

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Federica Marelli Division of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases and Laboratory of Endocrine and Metabolic Research, Istituto Auxologico Italiano, Istituto Di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico (IRCCS), Milan, Italy

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Tiziana de Filippis Division of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases and Laboratory of Endocrine and Metabolic Research, Istituto Auxologico Italiano, Istituto Di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico (IRCCS), Milan, Italy

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Beatriz Romartinez-Alonso Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, Leicester Institute of Structural and Chemical Biology, University of Leicester, Leicester, United Kingdom

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Odelia Rajanayagam Wellcome Trust-MRC Institute of Metabolic Science, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom

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Giuditta Rurale Division of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases and Laboratory of Endocrine and Metabolic Research, Istituto Auxologico Italiano, Istituto Di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico (IRCCS), Milan, Italy

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Ilaria Gentile Department of Medical Biotechnology and Translational Medicine, University of Milan, Milan, Italy

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Federica Spagnolo Unit of Endocrinology, University Hospital “G. Martino”, Messina, Italy

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Massimiliano Andreasi Laboratorio Analisi Cliniche, Centro di Ricerche e Tecnologie Biomediche, IRCCS Istituto Auxologico Italiano, Cusano Milanino, Italy

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Francesco Ferraù Unit of Endocrinology, University Hospital “G. Martino”, Messina, Italy
Department of Human Pathology of Adulthood and Childhood, University of Messina, Messina, Italy

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Salvatore Cannavò Unit of Endocrinology, University Hospital “G. Martino”, Messina, Italy
Department of Human Pathology of Adulthood and Childhood, University of Messina, Messina, Italy

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Laura Fugazzola Division of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases and Laboratory of Endocrine and Metabolic Research, Istituto Auxologico Italiano, Istituto Di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico (IRCCS), Milan, Italy
Department of Pathophysiology and Transplantation, University of Milan, Milan, Italy

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Krishna V. Chatterjee Wellcome Trust-MRC Institute of Metabolic Science, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom

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Luca Persani Division of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases and Laboratory of Endocrine and Metabolic Research, Istituto Auxologico Italiano, Istituto Di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico (IRCCS), Milan, Italy
Department of Medical Biotechnology and Translational Medicine, University of Milan, Milan, Italy

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Introduction: Resistance to thyroid hormone β (RTHβ) is an inherited syndrome caused by dominant negative variants in the THRB gene (NM_000461.5). The clinical picture of RTHβ is variable, and patients harboring the same variant may display different degrees of disease severity. Case Presentation: A 30-year-old man presented with thyrotoxicosis and central hyperthyroidism and was found to have a novel variant in the exon 10 of THRB gene (c.C1282G, p.L428V), located within the third hot spot region of the C-terminal of the receptor. Surprisingly, the same variant was found in two other relatives with an apparent normal thyroid function at initial screening. After exclusion of a TSH-secreting adenoma and serum interference in the proband, and the finding that exogenous levothyroxine failed to suppress the TSH in the brother affected by nodular goiter, relatives’ thyroid function tests (TFTs) were reassessed with additional analytical method revealing biochemical features consistent with RTHβ in all carriers of the p.L428V variant. Functional studies showed a slightly impaired in vitro transcriptional activity of p.L428V. Interestingly‚ the expression of the human p.L428V thyroid hormone receptor beta in the zebrafish embryo background generated a phenotype consistent with RTHβ. Conclusion: Variable results of TFTs on some immunoassays can be a cause of RTHβ diagnostic delay, but the genotype-phenotype correlation in this family and functional studies support p.L428V as a novel THRB variant expanding the spectrum of gene variants causing RTHβ. In vivo, rather than in vitro, functional assays may be required to demonstrate the dominant negative action of THRB variants.

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Samuel Refetoff Departments of Medicine, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Ill., USA
Departments of Pediatrics, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Ill., USA
Genetics, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Ill., USA

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J.H. Duncan Bassett Department of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, UK

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Paolo Beck-Peccoz Department of Clinical Sciences and Community Health, University of Milan
Fondazione Ca' Granda Policlinico, Milan, Italy

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Juan Bernal Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas-Universidad Autonoma de Madrid and Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Raras, Madrid, Spain

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Gregory Brent Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Calif., USA

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Krishna Chatterjee Wellcome-Medical Research Council Institute of Metabolic Science, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK

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Leslie J. De Groot Thyroidmanager and Endotext, South Dartmouth, Mass

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Alexandra M. Dumitrescu Departments of Medicine, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Ill., USA

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J. Larry Jameson Raymond and Ruth Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa

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Peter A. Kopp Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism, and Molecular Medicine and Center for Genetic Medicine, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, Ill., USA

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Yoshiharu Murata Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Japan

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Luca Persani Department of Clinical Sciences and Community Health, University of Milan
Istituto Auxologico Italiano, Milan, Italy

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Jacques Samarut Ecole Normale Supérieure de Lyon, Lyon, France

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Roy E. Weiss Departments of Medicine, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Ill., USA
Departments of Pediatrics, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Ill., USA

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Graham R. Williams Department of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, UK

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Paul M. Yen Laboratory of Hormone Action, Singapore Institute of Clinical Sciences, Singapore, Singapore

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