Graves' orbitopathy (GO) is the main extrathyroidal manifestation of Graves' disease, though severe forms are rare. Management of GO is often suboptimal, largely because available treatments do not target pathogenic mechanisms of the disease. Treatment should rely on a thorough assessment of the activity and severity of GO and its impact on the patient's quality of life. Local measures (artificial tears, ointments and dark glasses) and control of risk factors for progression (smoking and thyroid dysfunction) are recommended for all patients. In mild GO, a watchful strategy is usually sufficient, but a 6-month course of selenium supplementation is effective in improving mild manifestations and preventing progression to more severe forms. High-dose glucocorticoids (GCs), preferably via the intravenous route, are the first line of treatment for moderate-to-severe and active GO. The optimal cumulative dose appears to be 4.5-5 g of methylprednisolone, but higher doses (up to 8 g) can be used for more severe forms. Shared decision-making is recommended for selecting second-line treatments, including a second course of intravenous GCs, oral GCs combined with orbital radiotherapy or cyclosporine, rituximab or watchful waiting. Rehabilitative treatment (orbital decompression surgery, squint surgery or eyelid surgery) is needed in the majority of patients when GO has been conservatively managed and inactivated by immunosuppressive treatment.
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- Author: Mario Salvi x
Luigi Bartalena, Lelio Baldeschi, Kostas Boboridis, Anja Eckstein, George J. Kahaly, Claudio Marcocci, Petros Perros, Mario Salvi, and Wilmar M. Wiersinga
Henry B Burch, Petros Perros, Tomasz Bednarczuk, David S Cooper, Peter J Dolman, Angela M Leung, Ilse Mombaerts, Mario Salvi, and Marius N Stan
Thyroid eye disease (TED) remains challenging for clinicians to evaluate and manage. Novel therapies have recently emerged, and their specific roles are still being determined. Most patients with TED develop eye manifestations while being treated for hyperthyroidism and under the care of endocrinologists. Endocrinologists, therefore, have a key role in diagnosis, initial management, and selection of patients who require referral to specialist care. Given that the need for guidance to endocrinologists charged with meeting the needs of patients with TED transcends national borders, and to maximize an international exchange of knowledge and practices, the American Thyroid Association and European Thyroid Association joined forces to produce this Consensus Statement.
Ilaria Muller, Anita Daturi, Matteo Varallo, Tiziana E Re, Davide Dazzi, Sara Maioli, Erica Crivicich, Francesco Di Marco, Virgilio Longari, Beatrice Dazzi, Massimo Castellani, Giovanna Mantovani, Maura Arosio, and Mario Salvi
We have previously observed thyroid dysfunction, i.e. atypical thyroiditis (painless thyrotoxicosis associated with non-thyroidal illness syndrome), in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 disease (Covid-19). This study aimed to analyse the evolution of thyroid dysfunction over time.
One hundred eighty-three consecutive patients hospitalised for severe Covid-19 without known thyroid history were studied at hospital admission (baseline). Survivors were offered 12-month longitudinal follow-up including assessment of thyroid function, autoantibodies and ultrasound scan (US). Patients showing US focal hypoechoic areas suggestive of thyroiditis (focal hypoechogenicity) also underwent thyroid 99mTc or 123I uptake scan.
At baseline, after excluding from TSH analysis, 63 out of 183 (34%) Covid-19 patients commenced on steroids before hospitalisation, and 12 (10%) showed atypical thyroiditis. Follow-up of 75 patients showed normalisation of thyroid function and inflammatory markers and no increased prevalence of detectable thyroid autoantibodies. Baseline US (available in 65 patients) showed focal hypoechogenicity in 28% of patients, of whom 82% had reduced thyroid 99mTc/123I uptake. The presence of focal hypoechogenicity was associated with baseline low TSH (P = 0.034), high free-thyroxine (FT4) (P = 0.018) and high interleukin-6 (IL6) (P = 0.016). Focal hypoechogenicity persisted after 6 and 12 months in 87% and 50% patients, respectively, but reduced in size. After 9 months, thyroid 99mTc/123I uptake partially recovered from baseline (+28%) but was still reduced in 67% patients.
Severe Covid-19 induces mild transient thyroid dysfunction correlating with disease severity. Focal hypoechogenicity, associated with baseline high FT4, IL6 and low TSH, does not seem to be related to thyroid autoimmunity and may persist after 1 year although decreasing in size. Long-term consequences seem unlikely.