Treatment with amiodarone is associated with changes in thyroid function tests, but also with thyroid dysfunction (amiodarone-induced hypothyroidism, AIH, and amiodarone-induced thyrotoxicosis, AIT). Both AIH and AIT may develop in apparently normal thyroid glands or in the presence of underlying thyroid abnormalities. AIH does not require amiodarone withdrawal, and is treated with levothyroxine replacement if overt, whereas subclinical forms may be followed without treatment. Two main types of AIT are recognized: type 1 AIT (AIT 1), a form of iodine-induced hyperthyroidism occurring in nodular goitres or latent Graves disease, and type 2 AIT (AIT 2), resulting from destructive thyroiditis in a normal thyroid gland. Mixed/indefinite forms exist due to both pathogenic mechanisms. AIT 1 is best treated with thionamides that may be combined for a few weeks with sodium perchlorate to make the thyroid gland more sensitive to thionamides. AIT 2 is treated with oral glucocorticoids. Once euthyroidism has been restored, AIT 2 patients are followed up without treatment, whereas AIT 1 patients should be treated with thyroidectomy or radioiodine. Mixed/indefinite forms of AIT are treated with thionamides. Oral glucocorticoids can be added from the beginning if a precise diagnosis is uncertain, or after a few weeks if response to thionamides alone is poor. The decision to continue or to stop amiodarone in AIT should be individualized in relation to cardiovascular risk stratification and taken jointly by specialist cardiologists and endocrinologists. In the presence of rapidly deteriorating cardiac conditions, emergency thyroidectomy may be required for all forms of AIT.
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- Author: Thera P Links x
Luigi Bartalena, Fausto Bogazzi, Luca Chiovato, Alicja Hubalewska-Dydejczyk, Thera P. Links, and Mark Vanderpump
Andries H Groen, Deborah van Dijk, Wim Sluiter, Thera P Links, Hendrik P Bijl, and John T M Plukker
The role of postoperative external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) in patients with residual iodine refractory-differentiated thyroid cancer (IR-DTC) is still inconclusive. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate locoregional control (LRC) and overall survival (OS), and potential side effects after postoperative EBRT for both microscopic and macroscopic non-radically resected, locally advanced IR-DTC.
Between 1990 and 2016, 49 patients with locally advanced IR-DTC received EBRT for microscopic (R1; n = 28) or macroscopic (R2; n = 21) locoregional residual disease. For more insight into the added effect of EBRT, we performed an intrapatient sub-analysis in 32 patients who had undergone more than 1 surgical intervention, comparing LRC after primary, curative-intended surgery with LRC after repeated surgery plus EBRT. To estimate LRC and OS, we used Kaplan–Meier curves. From 2007 onward, we prospectively recorded toxicity data in our head and neck cancer database (n = 10).
LRC rates 5 years after EBRT were higher for R1 (84.3%) than for R2 (44.9%) residual disease (P = 0.016). The 5-year OS rate after EBRT was 72.1% for R1 and 33.1% for R2 disease (P = 0.003). In the intrapatient analysis (n = 32), LRC rates were 6.3% 5 years after only initial surgery and 77.9% after repeated surgery with EBRT (P < 0.001). Acute toxicity was limited to grade I and II xerostomia, mucositis, and hoarseness; only one patient developed late grade III dysphagia.
Postoperative EBRT is associated with long-lasting LRC and OS with acceptable toxicity in patients with locally advanced IR-DTC, especially in microscopic residual disease.
Bernadette L Dekker, Anouk N A van der Horst-Schrivers, Adrienne H Brouwers, Christopher M Shuford, Ido P Kema, Anneke C Muller Kobold, and Thera P Links
Thyroglobulin (Tg) is an established tumor marker for differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) patients. However, Tg immunoassays can be subject to Tg autoantibody (TgAb) interference resulting in incorrect Tg values. Therefore, Tg measurement with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) could be promising in patients with TgAbs. In this study, we compared Tg IRMA and Tg-LC-MS/MS analytically in the presence of TgAbs. Furthermore, we compared the clinical interpretation of results obtained by both Tg assays in DTC patients with lower TgAbs titers (<10 U/mL) during 131I ablation therapy.
Totally 118 DTC patients diagnosed between 2006 and 2014 in a University Medical Center were followed with the Tg-IRMA (Thermo Fischer Scientific) and ARCHITECT anti-Tg (Abbott Laboratories) assays. We re-analyzed their samples with a sensitive Tg-LC-MS/MS method (Labcorp, limit of quantification of 0.02 ng/mL). Passing-Bablok regression analysis was performed on samples obtained during 131I ablation therapy and follow-up.
In 304 samples with lower TgAb titers, a good analytical agreement was found between both Tg assays (slope of 1.09 (95% CI: 1.05–1.16)). Fifty-five samples with potentially interfering TgAbs showed higher Tg-LC-MS/MS values than Tg-IRMA (slope of 1.45 (95% CI: 1.12–>>100)). In patients(n = 91) with lower TgAb titers at the time of 131I ablation therapy, the Tg assays showed a clinical concordance of 91.2, 87.9, and 98.9%, respectively, using a Tg cut-off value of 1.0, 2.0, and 5.0 ng/mL.
In DTC patients with lower titer TgAbs, Tg-IRMA is still a reliable and useful tumor marker. In DTC patients with potentially interfering TgAbs, Tg-IRMA values decreased due to TgAb interference.
Chantal A Lebbink, Thera P Links, Agnieszka Czarniecka, Renuka P Dias, Rossella Elisei, Louise Izatt, Heiko Krude, Kerstin Lorenz, Markus Luster, Kate Newbold, Arnoldo Piccardo, Manuel Sobrinho-Simões, Toru Takano, A S Paul van Trotsenburg, Frederik A Verburg, and Hanneke M van Santen
At present, no European recommendations for the management of pediatric thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) exist. Differences in clinical, molecular, and pathological characteristics between pediatric and adult DTC emphasize the need for specific recommendations for the pediatric population. An expert panel was instituted by the executive committee of the European Thyroid Association including an international community of experts from a variety of disciplines including pediatric and adult endocrinology, pathology, endocrine surgery, nuclear medicine, clinical genetics, and oncology. The 2015 American Thyroid Association Pediatric Guideline was used as framework for the present guideline. Areas of discordance were identified, and clinical questions were formulated. The expert panel members discussed the evidence and formulated recommendations based on the latest evidence and expert opinion. Children with a thyroid nodule or DTC require expert care in an experienced center. The present guideline provides guidance for healthcare professionals to make well-considered decisions together with patients and parents regarding diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of pediatric thyroid nodules and DTC.