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  • Author: Wei Zhu x
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Wenxing Guo, Long Tan, Shuyao Dong, Ya Jin, Mei Zhu, Hongyan Wei, Yanting Chen, Lili Fan, Cong Du, and Wanqi Zhang

Objectives: The reference values for thyroid volume (Tvol) determined by ultrasound require supportive data of normal Tvol from local iodine-sufficient populations. This study aimed to explore new reference values for Tvol in Chinese adults and comprehensively evaluate the factors associated with enlarged Tvol. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Tianjin, China. Tvol was measured by ultrasound in adults with long-term iodine sufficiency. Blood and urine samples were collected to evaluate biochemical indexes, thyroid function, and iodine status. Results: A total of 1,991 adults from the urban and suburban areas were analysed. The trend of Tvol increasing with age was observed in men under age 40 years and in women under age 52 years. In the quantile regression analyses, we found that body surface area (BSA) (β = 7.22, 95% CI: 5.33, 9.12), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) (β = −1.48, 95% CI: −2.39, −0.57), thyroid nodules (TNs) (β = 6.70, 95% CI: 2.19, 11.22), and metabolic syndrome (MetS) (β = 1.40, 95% CI: 0.63, 2.17) had a strong effect on Tvol at higher percentiles in males. The dominant factors influencing Tvol were BSA (β = 9.64, 95% CI: 2.66, 16.61), TSH (β = −0.78, 95% CI: −1.16, −0.39), and TNs (β = 1.11, 95% CI: 0.43, 1.79) in females. The largest reference values for Tvol based on BSA were 20.18 (17.79, 24.32) mL in males and 15.31 (14.05, 16.70) mL in females. Conclusions: Quantile regression analyses showed that a high BSA index, a decreased TSH level, and the prevalence of TNs were essential factors associated with the enlargement of the thyroid gland. Our findings reported the new reference values for Tvol determined by ultrasound based on gender and BSA in Chinese adults.

Open access

Liyun Shen, Lei Ye, Wei Zhu, Qin Jiao, Yulin Zhou, Shu Wang, Weiqing Wang, and Guang Ning

Objective

A combination of glucocorticoids with mycophenolate is recommended by current guidelines to boost response to Graves’ orbitopathy (GO) therapy. This study was designed to evaluate the therapeutic effects and safety of methotrexate (MTX) plus reduced (3.0 g) or full-dose (4.5 g) i.v. methylprednisolone (MP) vs full-dose i.v. MP alone.

Design and methods

This was a prospective, randomized, observer-masked, single-center clinical trial conducted in a tertiary clinical center. Ninety-seven patients with active moderate-to-severe GO were screened and 90 patients underwent randomization between April 2018 and Oct 2019. All patients completed 12 weeks of treatment and received clinical assessment. The patients received either MP 4.5 g only, MP 4.5 g plus oral MTX, or MP 3.0 g plus oral MTX. The primary outcome was the CAS response at week 12. Secondary outcomes were adverse events and other individual ophthalmic parameters.

Results

At week 12, 53.3% of MP, 76.7% of reduced MP plus MTX, and 76.7% of MP plus MTX achieved a CAS response, although the difference was not significant (P = 0.1). The overall response rates of the MP group, the reduced MP plus MTX group, and the MP plus MTX group were 43.3%, 53.3%, and 60%, respectively (P = 0.5). Subgroup analysis found that smoking status interacted with marginal significance with treatment effect (P = 0.048). Importantly, adverse event incidence was significantly lower in the reduced MP + MTX group (P = 0.017).

Conclusions

Our study shows that reduced MP plus MTX therapy is effective and safer in treating active and moderate-to-severe GO patients than 4.5 g MP monotherapy.

Open access

Min Ren, Qianlan Yao, Longlong Bao, Zhiting Wang, Ran Wei, Qianming Bai, Bo Ping, Cai Chang, Yu Wang, Xiaoyan Zhou, and Xiaoli Zhu

Objective

The data regarding the mutation landscape in Chinese patients with thyroid cancer are limited. The diagnostic performance of thyroid nodules by fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology needs optimization, especially in indeterminate nodules.

Methods

A total of 1039 FNA and surgical resection samples tested using the targeted multigene next-generation sequencing (NGS) panel were retrospectively collected. The features of gene alterations in different thyroid tumors were analyzed, and the diagnostic efficacy was evaluated.

Results

Among 1039 samples, there were 822 FNA and 217 surgical FFPE samples. Among 207 malignant thyroid resections, a total of 181 out of 193 papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs) were NGS-positive (93.8%), with a high prevalence of BRAF mutations (81.9%, 158/193) and a low prevalence of RAS (1.0%, 2/193) and TERT promoter mutations (3.6%, 7/193). Gene fusions, involving the RET and NTRK3 genes, were present in 20 PTCs (10.4%) and mutually exclusive with other driver mutations. Two of three follicular thyroid carcinomas harbored multiple mutations. RET gene point mutations were common in medullary thyroid carcinoma (8/11, 72.7%). The combination of cytology and DNA–RNA-based NGS analysis demonstrated superior diagnostic value (98.0%) in FNA samples. For indeterminate thyroid nodules, the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of NGS testing were 79.2 (38/48) and 80.0% (8/10), respectively. Two mutation-positive benign cases harbored NRAS and TSHR mutations, respectively.

Conclusions

Our study revealed the distinct molecular profile of thyroid tumors in the Chinese population. The combination of NGS testing and FNA cytology could facilitate the accurate diagnosis of thyroid nodules, especially for indeterminate nodules.