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Jingyue Chen Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Institute of Endocrinology, NHC Key Laboratory of Diagnosis and Treatment of Thyroid Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, China

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Chenyan Li Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Institute of Endocrinology, NHC Key Laboratory of Diagnosis and Treatment of Thyroid Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, China

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Weiping Teng Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Institute of Endocrinology, NHC Key Laboratory of Diagnosis and Treatment of Thyroid Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, China

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Zhongyan Shan Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Institute of Endocrinology, NHC Key Laboratory of Diagnosis and Treatment of Thyroid Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, China

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Jun Jin Department of Ophthalmology, Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China

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Yining Wei Department of Ophthalmology, Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China

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Jing Sun Department of Ophthalmology, Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China

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Yushu Li Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Institute of Endocrinology, NHC Key Laboratory of Diagnosis and Treatment of Thyroid Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, China

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Huifang Zhou Department of Ophthalmology, Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China

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Objective

The management of thyroid eye disease (TED) has undergone significant changes for decades. The study sought to investigate current clinical practice on the management of TED in China.

Methods

An online questionnaire survey was conducted from April to May 2023. The questionnaire involved diagnostic criteria for TED, multidisciplinary treatment (MDT) collaboration, and treatment preference for mild, moderate, and severe TED.

Results

A total of 289 questionnaires were collected, with 165 from endocrinologists and 124 from ophthalmologists. Only 36.7% of participants claimed there was an MDT clinical pattern for TED in their institutions. The coverage of biological agents was around 10% or lower. These were distinctly lower than in Western countries. About 62.6% of participants believed the incidence of TED has increased in recent years. Imaging techniques were used widely to assist in the diagnosis of TED. However, there was still controversy regarding the definition of proptosis in the Chinese population. Most doctors managed risk factors and provided orbital supportive treatments of artificial tears and glasses. For mild active TED, endocrinologists (39.4%) were inclined to recommend therapy for hyperthyroidism alone, while ophthalmologists (43.6%) preferred orbital corticosteroid injections. Currently, the most widely used treatment for moderate to severe active TED was high-dose intravenous corticosteroid (94.8%), while orbital radiotherapy combined with immunosuppressive agents was the most recognized second-line therapy (43.6%).

Conclusion

The study documented the consistency and differences between current clinical practices in the management of TED in China and the recently updated guidelines. There was a remarkable difference between ophthalmology and endocrinology departments, warranting management optimization.

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Jinrong Fu Department of Endocrinology, Guangdong Provincial People's Hospital (Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences), Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China
Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Institute of Endocrinology, NHC Key Laboratory of Diagnosis and Treatment of Thyroid Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, China

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Zihao Fan Department of Geriatrics, Guangdong Provincial Geriatrics Institute, Guangdong Provincial People's Hospital (Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences), Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China

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Liang He Department of Thyroid Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, China

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Qian Liu Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Jilin Cancer Hospital, Changchun, Jilin, China

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He Liu Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Institute of Endocrinology, NHC Key Laboratory of Diagnosis and Treatment of Thyroid Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, China

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Yushu Li Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Institute of Endocrinology, NHC Key Laboratory of Diagnosis and Treatment of Thyroid Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, China

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Haixia Guan Department of Endocrinology, Guangdong Provincial People's Hospital (Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences), Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China

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Objective

A vicious cycle between circadian disruption and escalating immune responses has been described in diverse inflammatory disease. The current study aimed to explore the role of circadian clock disruption in autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT).

Methods

Thirty AIT patients and 30 controls were enrolled and biopsied for thyroid tissues. Alterations of core clock genes expression in AIT thyroid tissues, and its association with serum and tissue inflammatory biomarkers were assessed. For animal studies, C57BL/6J mice administered with porcine thyroglobulin or PBS (as control) combined with adjuvants were sacrificed at four time points to investigate the circadian characteristic of experimental autoimmune thyroiditis (EAT). Light shift (LS) conditions were used to explore the influence of external circadian disturbance on EAT.

Results

The expression of clock genes BMAL1 and PER2 was significantly reduced in thyroid tissues from AIT patients and was negatively correlated to levels of thyroid peroxidase antibodies. In mouse models, diurnal fluctuations of proinflammatory cytokines were demonstrated, and further exposing mice to LS led to overproduction of TNF-α, IFN-γ, and anti-thyroglobulin antibodies. Circadian analysis revealed significant oscillations of Bmal1, Clock, Per2, Cry1, Ror, and Rev-erb, which was broadly disturbed in EAT, LS, and EAT + LS groups.

Conclusions

This study demonstrates that expression pattern of clock genes was disrupted in AIT thyroid, and chronic circadian disruption may aggravate the inflammatory responses in AIT. Whether maintaining a regular circadian rhythm can alleviate autoimmune thyroid diseases warrants further research.

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