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Tayyab S. Khan Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada

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Esha Sharma LMC Diabetes and Endocrinology, Brampton, Ontario, Canada

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Baldev Singh LMC Diabetes and Endocrinology, Brampton, Ontario, Canada

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Bikram Jammu LMC Diabetes and Endocrinology, Brampton, Ontario, Canada

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Amarinder Chadha LMC Diabetes and Endocrinology, Brampton, Ontario, Canada

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Divya Markanday LMC Diabetes and Endocrinology, Brampton, Ontario, Canada

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Yan Yan Wu Office of Public Health Studies, University of Hawai’i at Manoa, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA

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Harpreet S. Bajaj LMC Diabetes and Endocrinology, Brampton, Ontario, Canada
Leadership Sinai Centre for Diabetes, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

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Introduction Ultrasound-guided thyroid fine needle aspiration and biopsy (FNAB) has become the test of choice for evaluation of thyroid nodules. It combines ease of access and a high sensitivity and specificity to offer reliable results to aid

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Ralf Paschke
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Silvia Cantara
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Anna Crescenzi
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Barbara Jarzab
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Thomas J. Musholt
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Manuel Sobrinho Simoes
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Introduction/Background Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) has high sensitivity and specificity in distinguishing benign from malignant thyroid lesions [ 1 ]. However, in 2–16% of cases cytology is not diagnostic [ 2 ], i.e., the material is

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Francesco Quaglino General Surgery Unit, Turin, Italy

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Valentina Marchese General Surgery Unit, Turin, Italy

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Enrico Mazza Endocrinology and Metabolism Unit, Turin, Italy

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Cristina Gottero Endocrinology and Metabolism Unit, Turin, Italy

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Riccardo Lemini General Surgery Unit, Turin, Italy

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Stefano Taraglio Pathology Unit, Maria Vittoria Hospital ASL TO2, Turin, Italy

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therapeutic resources [ 5 , 6 ]. Thyroid fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology has proven to be the most accurate, safe, efficient, and cost-effective screening and diagnostic tool for the preoperative distinction of benign from malignant nodules [ 3 , 4 ]. It

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Tamas Solymosi Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinic, Bugat Hospital, Gyöngyös, Hungary

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Laszlo Hegedüs Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark

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Steen Joop Bonnema Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark

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Andrea Frasoldati Endocrinology Unit of Arcispedale S. Maria Nuova, Reggio Emilia, Italy

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Laszlo Jambor Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Debrecen, Debrecen, Hungary

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Gabor Laszlo Kovacs 1st Department of Medicine, Flohr Ferenc Hospital, Kerepestarcsa, Hungary

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Enrico Papini Regina Apostolorum Hospital in Albano, Rome, Italy

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Karoly Rucz 1st Department of Medicine, University of Pecs, Pecs, Hungary

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Gilles Russ Unité Thyroïde et Tumeurs Endocrines – Pr Leenhardt Hôpital La Pitie Salpetriere, Sorbonne Université, Paris, France

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Zsolt Karanyi Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Debrecen, Debrecen, Hungary

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Endre V. Nagy Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Debrecen, Debrecen, Hungary

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Introduction For more than three decades, the cornerstones in the clinical management of patients with thyroid nodules have been ultrasound (US) and fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology [ 1 - 5 ]. Robust evidence demonstrates that the risk of

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Taha Yusuf Kuzan Department of Radiology, Sancaktepe Sehit Prof. Dr. Ilhan Varank Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey

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Ceren Canbey Goret Department of Surgical Pathology, Sancaktepe Sehit Prof. Dr. Ilhan Varank Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey

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thyroid nodules are benign, and 5–15% of them are thyroid malignancies. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) is a reliable, minimally invasive diagnostic method with high sensitivity and specificity in the evaluation of thyroid nodules [ 2 , 4 - 7

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Marta Amaro da Silveira Duval Thyroid Unit, Endocrine Division, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil

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André Borsatto Zanella Thyroid Unit, Endocrine Division, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil

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Ana Patrícia Cristo Thyroid Unit, Endocrine Division, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil

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Carlo Sasso Faccin Thyroid Unit, Endocrine Division, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil

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Marcia Silva Graudenz Thyroid Unit, Endocrine Division, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil

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Ana Luiza Maia Thyroid Unit, Endocrine Division, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil

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hilum, rounded shape, hyperechoic punctuations, cystic formation, peripheral vascularization, and microcalcifications [ 8 ]. Suspicious LNs are confirmed through fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology guided by ultrasound (US). Nevertheless, inadequate

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Dong Gyu Na Department of Radiology, Human Medical Imaging and Intervention Center, Seoul, South Korea

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Hye Sook Min Departments of Pathology, Seoul, South Korea

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Hunkyung Lee Department of Pathology, Ewha Clinical Laboratory, Seoul, South Korea

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Jae-Kyung Won Departments of Pathology, Seoul, South Korea

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Hyo Bin Seo Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital Kangnam Center, Seoul, South Korea

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Ji-Hoon Kim Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, South Korea

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Introduction The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology (BSRTC) recommends repeat fine-needle aspiration (RFNA) for thyroid nodules initially diagnosed as atypia/follicular lesion of undetermined significance (AUS/FLUS) [ 1 , 2

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Rachelle P Mendoza Department of Pathology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York, USA

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Richard Cody Simon Department of Pathology, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USA

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Nicole A Cipriani Department of Pathology, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USA

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Tatjana Antic Department of Pathology, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USA

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Introduction Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNA) is widely accepted as the most accurate and cost-effective diagnostic procedure in the assessment of thyroid nodules. The Bethesda System outlines the diagnostic categories for thyroid nodules

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Pedro Weslley Souza Rosario Santa Casa de Belo Horizonte, Belo Horizonte, Brazil

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Dear Editor, Recently, Russ et al. [ 1 ] endorsed active surveillance for low-risk papillary microcarcinoma of the thyroid (PMT). It is also reasonable to imagine that, if immediate treatment is not necessary, fine-needle aspiration (FNA) of

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Eun Kyung Jang Departments of Internal Medicine, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea

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Dong Eun Song Departments of Pathology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea

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Gyungyub Gong Departments of Pathology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea

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Jung Hwan Baek Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea

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Yun Mi Choi Departments of Internal Medicine, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea

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Min Ji Jeon Departments of Internal Medicine, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea

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Ji Min Han Departments of Internal Medicine, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea

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Won Gu Kim Departments of Internal Medicine, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea

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Tae Yong Kim Departments of Internal Medicine, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea

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Young Kee Shong Departments of Internal Medicine, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea

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Won Bae Kim Departments of Internal Medicine, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea

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Introduction Fine needle aspiration (FNA) is a rapid, cost-effective, and safe test, which is widely used for the diagnosis of thyroid nodules [ 1 ]. The positive predictive value of a malignant FNA cytology (FNAC) result is 97-99% according

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