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Yoon Young Cho, Hye Won Jang, Ji Young Joung, Sun-Mi Park, Dae Joon Jeong, Sun Wook Kim, and Jae Hoon Chung

undergoing thyroid screening exams (ultrasonography) than children, and their epidemiologic and biochemical characteristics are expected to be different from those in childhood thyroid cancer [ 8 ]. The Ministry of Health and Welfare initiated a nationwide

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Shigenobu Nagataki

the screening were unlikely to be due to radiation. The clear differences in radiation dose (fig. 1 ) [ 11 ], the age distribution of the affected children, and the short latency period of cancer after the accident, as well as the genetic

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Shirley Langham, Peter Hindmarsh, Steven Krywawych, and Catherine Peters

Introduction The newborn screening programme for CH was introduced in the UK in 1981 [ 1 , 2 ] and has virtually abolished cases of untreated congenital hypothyroidism (CH). CH is a common (1 in 3,000-4,000 live births) condition [ 3 , 4 ] in

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Jan Jiskra, Jiří Horáček, Sylvie Špitálníková, Jan Paleček, Zdeňka Límanová, Jan Krátký, Drahomíra Springer, Kristýna Žabková, and Hana Vítková

diabetes mellitus has been reported ( 12 ), but data on gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are not available. The aims of the study were (i) to compare the prevalence of thyroid nodules and cancer in women who underwent two different screening strategies

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Kevin Stroek, Annemieke C. Heijboer, Marja van Veen-Sijne, Annet M. Bosch, Catharina P.B. van der Ploeg, Nitash Zwaveling-Soonawala, Robert de Jonge, A.S. Paul van Trotsenburg, and Anita Boelen

is hypothalamic or pituitary dysfunction, named secondary or central CH (CH-C) [ 1 ]. Early detection and treatment of CH prevent neurodevelopmental disabilities. Therefore, CH has been included in many newborn screening (NBS) programs worldwide since

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Nadine Johnson, Vikash Chatrani, Anna-Kay Taylor-Christmas, Eric Choo-Kang, Monica Smikle, Rosemarie Wright-Pascoe, Karen Phillips, and Marvin Reid

-thyroxine therapy was associated with reduced adverse neurodevelopmental outcome [ 9 , 10 ]. A recent large trial, however, yielded contradictory results. Obstetric outcomes were not reported but prenatal screening and maternal treatment did not improve

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Helmi Khadra, Ahmed Deniwar, Khuzema Mohsin, Dominique Monlezun, and Emad Kandil

Background: Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) can be predicted from certain suspicious ultrasound (US) features of thyroid nodules. The aim of this study was to examine if these suspicious features can predict the more aggressive PTC associated with B-type Raf kinase (BRAFV600E) mutation. Methods: This was a retrospective review of prospectively collected data on patients with PTC and known BRAFV600E status. All patients underwent preoperative US by the same surgeon who performed all the operations. We divided patients into BRAFV600E positive and negative groups. All ultrasonographic data were collected including nodule size, echogenicity, solid or cystic nature, presence of calcifications, irregular margins, and internal vascularity. Results: Of 141 patients with PTC, BRAFV600E mutation was detected in 48 (34.0%) patients. There was no significant difference in nodule size (2.06 cm ± 1.37 vs. 2.15 cm ±1.55, p = 0.75) between BRAFV600E positive and negative groups. BRAFV600E positivity was associated with higher rates of ­hypoechogenicity (57.5% vs. 36.6, p = 0.02), calcifications (48.9 vs. 19.4%, p < 0.01), and irregular margins (21.3 vs. 6.5%, p < 0.01). There was no significant difference in the noncystic nature or internal vascularity between BRAFV600E positive and negative groups. The presence of all suspicious US features is associated with a positive predictive value of 100.0%. In the absence of all suspicious features, the negative predictive value was 84.2%. When suspicious lymph nodes (LNs) detected by preoperative US were compared, there was no significant difference between BRAFV600E positive and negative groups (30.6 vs. 21.7%, p = 0.35). Conclusion: The presence of multiple suspicious US findings of thyroid nodules can predict the BRAFV600E mutation status of papillary thyroid cancer nodules. The highest accuracy overall (93.2%) was achieved by combining calcification, irregular margins, and hypoechogenicity with extrathyroidal extension and LN metastasis. Future multi-institutional studies are warranted to help surgeons with risk stratification and operative planning for patients with papillary thyroid cancer.

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Roberto Negro

Dear Sir, The results of the long awaited Antenatal Thyroid Screening and Childhood Cognitive Function study have finally been published in the New England Journal of Medicine after a preliminary presentation of findings at the

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Catarina Silvestre, Joaquim Sampaio Matias, Helena Proença, and Maria João Bugalho

there is still no consensus about Ctn screening in patients with thyroid nodules for MTC diagnosis. This practice is the standard of care at reference centers in Europe; however, the American Thyroid Association does not recommend for or against this

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Paolo Cavarzere, Laura Palma, Lara Nicolussi Principe, Monica Vincenzi, Silvana Lauriola, Rossella Gaudino, Virginia Murri, Luigi Lubrano, Giuliana Rossi, Alessia Sallemi, Ermanna Fattori, Marta Camilot, and Franco Antoniazzi

treatment lead to a false negative newborn screening result for CH, delaying the necessary replacement therapy? In particular, to avoid the latest, some authors have suggested to perform serum thyroid function tests between 15 and 30 days of life in all