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Peter P.A. Smyth

, when uncovered and under stress at low tide, will react with atmospheric ozone (O 3 ) to produce iodine (I 2 ) [ 11 , 12 ]. The thyroid gland concentrates iodide from the bloodstream by a factor of about 40 [ 28 ]. However, its iodide

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Barbara A. Demeneix

, observational studies demonstrate that in humans even mild maternal iodine deficiency can be associated with impaired child brain development and IQ loss [ 4 ]. Iodine is a major component of THs and pivotal for TH synthesis. In line with this, iodine

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Valentina M. Drozd, Igor Branovan, Nikolay Shiglik, Johannes Biko, and Christoph Reiners

: environmental/atmospheric exposure to nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen, dietary exposure to nitrate and nitrite in food and in drinking water, and endogenous production of NO and swallowing of nitrate-rich saliva [ 36 , 37 ]. The largest proportion of reactive