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Giulia Masetti and Marian Ludgate

), causing hyperthyroidism. About half of GD patients also have Gravesorbitopathy (GO), in which cross-reacting autoimmune responses to thyroid/orbit shared antigens (notably the TSHR) lead to expansion of the orbital contents. The overproduction of

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Giulia Lanzolla, Claudio Marcocci, and Michele Marinò

Introduction Graves disease (GD) is a common autoimmune disease, with a prevalence of ∼1% [ 1 ]. Although GD affects primarily the thyroid, extrathyroidal manifestations, i.e., Graves orbitopathy (GO), pretibial myxoedema, and acropachy [ 2

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Elena Sabini, Ilaria Ionni, Roberto Rocchi, Paolo Vitti, Claudio Marcocci, and Michele Marinò

What Is Known about This Topic? Gravesorbitopathy is believed to be the consequence of autoimmunity against antigens present both in the thyroid and in orbital tissues. Massive release of thyroid antigens causes the appearance or

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Alan Chun Hong Lee and George J. Kahaly

Introduction Graves’ disease (GD) accounts for 75% of hyperthyroidism in iodine-replete geographical areas. Approximately one-fifth of GD patients develop Gravesorbitopathy (GO), which is the most common extrathyroidal manifestation of GD

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Luigi Bartalena

Introduction Management of Graves' orbitopathy (GO), the most important extrathyroidal expression of Graves' disease, remains a major challenge and dilemma [ 1 ]. Available therapies are largely imperfect, and a large proportion of patients

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C. Daumerie, A. Boschi, and P. Perros

What Is Known So Far on This Topic? • Hypothyroidism is thought to have a detrimental effect on Gravesorbitopathy (GO), though it is unclear whether this is mediated by TSH or the hypothyroid state. • A possible association between

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Luigi Bartalena, Lelio Baldeschi, Kostas Boboridis, Anja Eckstein, George J. Kahaly, Claudio Marcocci, Petros Perros, Mario Salvi, and Wilmar M. Wiersinga

Introduction In 2008, EUGOGO published a consensus statement on the management of Graves' orbitopathy (GO) simultaneously in the European Journal of Endocrinology and in Thyroid [ 1 , 2 ]. The statement was received very well [ 3 ] and has

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Elena Sabini, Marenza Leo, Barbara Mazzi, Roberto Rocchi, Francesco Latrofa, Marco Nardi, Paolo Vitti, Claudio Marcocci, and Michele Marinò

Introduction Gravesorbitopathy (GO) is a disfiguring and disabling disease that profoundly impairs the quality of life of affected patients [ 1 - 4 ]. The natural history of GO is characterized by an initial phase in which signs and symptoms

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Roberto Negro, Laszlo Hegedüs, Roberto Attanasio, Enrico Papini, and Kristian H. Winther

Introduction Graves’ disease (GD), especially when accompanied by Gravesorbitopathy (GO), remains a conundrum both as for etiology and for treatment [ 1 ]. Genetic susceptibility in an elaborate and only partially understood interaction with

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Murat Faik Erdoğan, Özgür Demir, Reyhan Ünlü Ersoy, Kamile Gül, Berna İmge Aydoğan, Ziynet Alphan Üç, Türkan Mete, Sibel Ertek, Uğur Ünlütürk, Bekir Çakır, Yalçın Aral, Serdar Güler, Sevim Güllü, Demet Çorapçıoğlu, Selçuk Dağdelen, and Gürbüz Erdoğan

Introduction Graves' orbitopathy (GO) is a devastating and disfiguring disease affecting appearance and functioning of the eyes and thus profoundly impairing the quality of life of affected individuals [ 1 ]. GO is an autoimmune disorder, but