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Jeppe Lerche la Cour, Line Tang Møllehave, Bjarke Røssner Medici, Christian Zinck Jensen, Anne Ahrendt Bjerregaard, and Birte Nygaard

Galobardes B Shaw M Lawlor DA Lynch JW Smith GD . Indicators of socioeconomic position (part 1) . Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 2006 60 7 – 12 . ( ) 10.1136/jech.2004.023531 6 Jonklaas J

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Barbara A. Demeneix

scientists and clinicians led by Leonard Trasande carried out a study on the socio-economic costs of EDCs. The methodology chosen was derived from that used by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) [ 40 ]. It applied the classic “attributable

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Marta Kostecka-Matyja, Anna Fedorowicz, Ewa Bar-Andziak, Tomasz Bednarczuk, Monika Buziak-Bereza, Paulina Dumnicka, Maria Górska, Małgorzata Krasnodębska, Beata Niedźwiedzka, Dorota Pach, Marek Ruchała, Katarzyna Siewko, Bogdan Solnica, Jerzy Sowiński, Małgorzata Szelachowska, Małgorzata Trofimiuk-Müldner, Katarzyna Wachowiak-Ochmańska, and Alicja Hubalewska-Dydejczyk

Objectives: The diagnosis and treatment of thyroid diseases in pregnant women remains a challenge. Various medical associations recommend establishing the reference intervals for thyroid hormones by a local laboratory. Considering differences within geophysical, socioeconomic conditions, and iodine prophylaxis in various populations, it is advisable to assess reference intervals for thyroid hormones specific to a region of residence. The objective was to assess trimester-specific reference intervals for TSH, fT<sub>3</sub>, and fT<sub>4</sub> for pregnant women in the Polish population. Methods and Results: We conducted a prospective study in 4 centers representing different regions of Poland (Krakow, Warsaw, Poznan, and Bialystok). Our study included consecutive, healthy pregnant women (172 patients), with an age range of 27-47 years. All women had a negative history for thyroid diseases, normal thyroid peroxidase antibody levels, and proper iodine prophylaxis. All newborns had TSH levels in the appropriate reference range. Serum TSH, fT<sub>3</sub>, fT<sub>4</sub>, and thyroid-peroxidase antibodies were measured in each trimester. The reference intervals were calculated using the percentile method, as recommended by the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry. The reference values calculated were 0.009-3.177, 0.05-3.442, and 0.11-3.53 mIU/L for TSH; 3.63-6.55, 3.29-5.45, and 3.1-5.37 pmol/L for fT<sub>3</sub>; and 11.99-21.89, 10.46-16.67, and 8.96-17.23 pmol/L for fT<sub>4</sub> in consecutive trimesters of pregnancy. Reference intervals for pregnant women when compared to the general population showed a lower concentration of TSH in every trimester of pregnancy and lower fT<sub>4</sub> in the 2nd and 3rd trimesters. Conclusions: Using appropriate trimester-specific reference intervals may improve care of pregnant women by preventing misdiagnosis and inadequate treatment.

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Marta Taida García-Ascaso, Susana Ares Segura, Purificación Ros Pérez, Roi Piñeiro Pérez, and Marta Alfageme Zubillaga

Puerta de Hierro-Majadahonda Hospital between April 2011 and October 2012. A total of 217 children aged 3–14 years were enrolled. All of them had been referred from primary health care centers in the surrounding area (one of high socioeconomic status) to

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Berglind Jonsdottir, Markus Lundgren, Sara Wallengren, Åke Lernmark, Ida Jönsson, and Helena Elding Larsson

genetic background but different socioeconomic circumstances [ 11 ] and discussed in Wiersinga [ 12 ]. Perinatal factors or events during infancy are of special interest, since this period is important for the development of immunological self

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F. Cecoli, E.M. Ceresola, V. Altrinetti, M. Cabria, M. Cappagli, A. Montepagani, C.M. Cuttica, U. Filippi, D. Saverino, M. Raffa, M. Caputo, F. Minuto, M. Giusti, and M. Bagnasco

thyroid cancer incidence in the United States: review of incidence trends by socioeconomic status within the surveillance, epidemiology, and end results registry, 1980-2008. Thyroid 2013;23:103-110. 10.1089/thy.2012.0392 23043274 2 Davies L, Welch

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Dong Jun Lim, Won Bae Kim, Bo Hyun Kim, Tae Yong Kim, Young Suk Jo, Ho-Cheol Kang, Young Joo Park, Ka Hee Yi, Minho Shong, In Joo Kim, Do Joon Park, Sun Wook Kim, Jae Hoon Chung, Jaetae Lee, Sung-Soo Koong, and Young Kee Shong

]. Moreover, socioeconomic burdens including sick leave from work, as well as physical suffering, are markedly increased in all patients undergoing this procedure for thyroid cancer management [ 12 ]. To make things worse, some patients experiencing acute

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Mario Rotondi, Maria Grazia Castagna, Carlo Cappelli, Cristina Ciuoli, Francesca Coperchini, Francesco Chiofalo, Fabio Maino, Paola Palmitesta, Luca Chiovato, and Furio Pacini

;115:3801-3807. 10.1002/cncr.24416 19598221 3 Li N, Du XL, Reitzel LR, Xu L, Sturgis EM: Impact of enhanced detection on the increase in thyroid cancer incidence in the United States: review of incidence trends by socioeconomic status within the surveillance

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Henry Völzke, Iris Erlund, Alicja Hubalewska-Dydejczyk, Till Ittermann, Robin P. Peeters, Margaret Rayman, Monika Buchberger, Uwe Siebert, Betina H. Thuesen, Michael B. Zimmermann, Stefan Grünert, and John H. Lazarus

, urinary iodine concentration. The same challenges were noted in the collection of interview and ultrasound data. Standardized questionnaires to assess the socioeconomic status in different languages are available (http

Open access

Valentina M. Drozd, Igor Branovan, Nikolay Shiglik, Johannes Biko, and Christoph Reiners

–1152; discussion 1152–1143. 7 Roche LM, Niu X, Pawlish KS, Henry KA: Thyroid cancer incidence in New Jersey: time trend, birth cohort and socioeconomic status analysis (1979–2006). J Environ Public Health 2011; 2011: 850105. 8 SEER: Cancer of the